Dangerous goods – special kind of cargo, with increased demands on the transportation conditions. Dangerous goods are prohibited for transportation by standard conditions and require special packaging.
Dangerous goods are classified in one of the nine classes of danger accepted UN (UN - United Nations). Nine dangerous classes mean the type of danger.
These classes are listed below with some features and labeling samples:
CLASS 1 - explosive materials, that can explode, cause fire with explosive action, as well as devices containing explosives and explosive materials intended for the production of pyrotechnic effect.
1.1 - Explosives and pyrotechnic substances and products with a danger of explosion when the explosion instantly covers the entire cargo;
1.2 - Explosives and pyrotechnic substances and articles that are not explosive;
1.3 - Explosives and pyrotechnic substances and articles may ignite but with minor blast effect or not;
1.4 - Explosives and pyrotechnic substances and products, with little danger of explosion during transportation only in case of ignition or initiation, not giving the breakup devices and packages;
1.5 - explosives to explosion danger which are so insensitive that when transporting initiation or transition from burning to detonation is unlikely
1.6 - items containing so insensitive detonating substances without exploding mass and characterized by a low probability of accidental initiation.
CLASS 2 - compressed gases liquefied by cooling and dissolved under pressure corresponding to at least one of the following conditions:
According to physical conditions gases can be split:
2.1 - non-flammable gases;
2.2 - flammable toxic gases;
2.3 - flammable gases;
2.4 – easy-flammable and toxic gas;
2.5 - chemically unstable;
2.6 - chemically unstable poisonous.
CLASS 3 - flammable liquids, mixtures of liquids and liquids containing solids in solution or suspension, which emit flammable vapors having a flash point in closed crucible 61C and below.
3.1 - flammable liquids with a low flash point and liquid having a flash point in closed crucible below minus 18C or having a flash point in combination with other hazardous characteristics, in addition to flammability;
3.2 - flammable liquids with medium flash point - a liquid with a flash point in closed crucible from minus 18 to plus 23C;
3.3 - highly flammable liquid with a high flash point - a liquid with a flash point of 23 to 61C inclusive in a closed crucible.
CLASS 4 - flammable substances and materials (other than those classified as explosives), which during transportation is easy to catch fire from external sources of ignition through friction, moisture absorption, spontaneous chemical reactions, as well as when heated.
4.1 - flammable solids, capable of easily ignited by brief exposure to external sources of ignition (spark, flame or friction) and is actively burning;
4.2 - pyrophoric substances, which under normal conditions of transport can spontaneously heat and ignite;
4.3 - substances that emit flammable gases in contact with water.
CLASS 5 -oxidizing agents and organic peroxides which can easily release oxygen to support combustion, and also can, under appropriate conditions or in a mixture with other substances, to cause spontaneous ignition and explosion.
5.1 - oxidizing agents, which are themselves non-flammable, but contribute to the combustibility of other substances and release oxygen during combustion, thereby increasing the intensity of the fire;
5.2 - organic peroxides, which in most cases are combustible, may act as oxidizing agents, and interact with other dangerous substances. Many of them are easy to ignite, and are sensitive to shock and friction.
CLASS 6 - toxic and infectious substances which can cause death, poisoning or illness if swallowed or in contact with skin and mucous membranes.
6.1 - poisonous (toxic) substances that can cause poisoning by inhalation (fumes, dust), ingestion or contact with the skin;
6.2 - substances and materials containing pathogens dangerous to humans and animals.
CLASS 7 - radioactive substances with specific activity of more than 70 kBq / kg (2 nCi / g).
CLASS 8 - caustic and corrosive substances that cause skin damage, damage to mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, metal corrosion and damage to vehicles, buildings or goods and may cause fire in contact with organic materials or certain chemicals.
8.1 - acid;
8.2 - alkalis;
8.3 - different caustic and corrosive substances.
CLASS 9 - substances with relatively low risks in the transportation referred to either of the previous classes, but require the application to them of certain rules of transportation and storage.
9.1 - solid and liquid combustible substances and materials, not 3, and 4th class of danger, but under certain conditions can be a fire hazard (flammable liquids with a flash point of +61 C to +100 C in a closed container, fiber and other similar materials );
9.2 - substance becoming caustic and corrosive under certain conditions.
Dangerous goods requiring special precautions during transport, the substances and materials with physical and chemical properties of a high degree of danger according to GOST 19433-88 hereinafter referred to as "particularly dangerous goods":
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